You are searching about How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant, today we will share with you article about How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant was compiled and edited by our team from many sources on the internet. Hope this article on the topic How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant is useful to you.
Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs
Eggs have been a staple of the human diet for thousands of years. From hunters and gatherers collecting eggs from the nests of wild birds, to the domestication of poultry for more reliable access to the egg supply, to today’s genetically selected birds and modern production equipment, eggs have long been recognized as a source of high-quality protein and other important nutrients.
Over the years, eggs have become an essential ingredient in many kitchens due to their many functional properties such as water retention, emulsification and foaming. The ovum is a self-sufficient and self-sufficient embryonic development chamber. At a suitable temperature, the developing embryo uses a wide range of essential nutrients in the egg for its growth and development. The necessary proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and functional nutrients are all present in sufficient amounts to make the transition from fertilized cells to the newborn chick, and the nutrient needs of avian species are similar enough to human needs to make eggs an ideal nutrient source for us. (The only essential human nutrient that eggs do not contain is ascorbic acid (vitamin C), since non- songbirds have active gulonolactone oxidase and synthesize ascorbic acid as needed.) This article summarizes the diverse nutritional contributions of eggs to the human diet.
Macro and micronutrients in eggs
The levels of many nutrients in an egg are affected by the age and breed or strain of the hen, as well as the season and composition of the feed the hen is fed. While most nutrient changes are relatively small, the fatty acid composition of egg lipids can be significantly altered by changes in hen diet. The exact amounts of many vitamins and minerals in an egg are determined in part by the nutrients provided in the hen’s diet. Chicken eggs contain 75.8% water, 12.6% protein, 9.9% lipids and 1.7% vitamins, minerals and a small amount of carbohydrates. Eggs belong to the group of protein foods and egg protein is one of the highest quality proteins available. Virtually all of the lipids found in eggs are contained in the yolk, along with most of the vitamins and minerals. Of the small amount of carbohydrates (less than 1% by weight), half is in the form of glycoprotein and the rest as free glucose.
Egg proteins, which are distributed in both yolk and albumen, are nutritionally complete proteins containing all essential amino acids (EAAs). Egg protein has a chemical score (the level of EAA in a protein food divided by the amount found in an “ideal” protein food) of 100, a biological value (a measure of how efficiently dietary protein is converted into body tissue) of 94, and the highest protein efficiency ratio (the ratio of weight gain to protein intake in young rats) of all dietary protein. The main proteins found in egg yolk include low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which makes up 65%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), phosvitin and livetin. These proteins exist in a homogeneously emulsified liquid. Egg white is made up of approximately 40 different types of protein. Ovalbumin is the major protein (54%) along with ovotransferrin (12%) and ovomucoid (11%). Other proteins of interest include flavoprotein, which binds riboflavin, avidin, which can bind and inactivate biotin, and lysozyme, which has a lytic effect against bacteria.
A large egg yolk contains 4.5 g of lipid, which consists of triacylglycerides (65%), phospholipids (31%) and cholesterol (4%). Of the total phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is the largest fraction and makes up 26%. Phosphatidylethanolamine contributes another 4%. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk lipids depends on the dietary fatty acid profile. The reported fatty acid profile of commercial eggs shows that a large egg contains 1.55 g of saturated fatty acids, 1.91 g of monounsaturated fat and 0.68 g of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Total fatty acids (4.14 g) do not equal total lipid (4.5 g) due to the glycerol portion of triacylglycerides and phospholipids and the phosphorylated portions of phospholipids). Eggs are reported to contain less than 0.05g of trans-fatty acids. Egg yolks also contain cholesterol (211 mg per large egg) and the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin.
Vitamins from eggs
Eggs contain all essential vitamins except vitamin C, as the developing chick does not have a dietary requirement for this vitamin. The yolk contains most of the water-soluble vitamins and 100% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Riboflavin and niacin are concentrated in egg white. Riboflavin in egg albumin is bound to flavoprotein in a molar ratio of 1:1. Eggs are one of the few natural sources of vitamins D and B12. Vitamin E levels in eggs can be increased up to tenfold by dietary changes. Although no vitamin is found in very high amounts relative to its DRI value, it is the wide spectrum of vitamins present that makes eggs nutritionally rich.
Minerals from eggs
Eggs contain small amounts of all the minerals necessary for life. The iron found in egg yolks is especially important. Research evaluating plasma iron and transferrin saturation in children aged 6–12 months showed that infants who ate egg yolks had better iron status than infants who ate egg yolks. A study showed that egg yolks can be a source of iron in the post-weaning diet for infants and formula-fed infants without raising blood antibodies against egg yolk proteins. Iron absorption from a particular food is determined by iron status, heme and non-heme iron content, and a number of different dietary factors that affect the absorption of iron present in the whole food. Limited information is available on the net effect of these factors in relation to egg iron bioavailability. In addition to iron, eggs contain calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese. Egg yolks also contain iodine (25 mg per large egg), which can be increased two to three times by adding an iodine source to the feed. The selenium content of the egg can also be increased up to ninefold by dietary manipulations.
Choline was established as an essential nutrient in 1999 with a Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of 550 mg for men and 450 mg for women. The RDI for choline increases during pregnancy and lactation due to the high rate of transfer of choline from mother to fetus and into breast milk. Animal studies show that choline plays a vital role in brain development, especially in the development of the memory centers of the fetus and newborn. Egg yolk lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is an excellent source of dietary choline, providing 125 mg of choline per large egg.
Egg yolk contains two xanthophylls (carotenes that contain an alcohol group) that have important health benefits – lutein and zeaxanthin. A large egg is estimated to contain 0.33 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin; however, the content of these xanthophylls is completely dependent on the type of feed that is given to the hens. The level of lutein in egg yolks can be increased up to tenfold by treating the feed with calendula extract or purified lutein.
The color of the yolk is an indicator of the luteinþzeaxanthin content; the darker the yellow-orange yolk, the higher the xanthophyll content. Studies have shown that egg yolk xanthophylls have higher bioavailability than those from plant sources, probably because the lipid matrix of egg yolk facilitates greater absorption. This increased bioavailability leads to a significant increase in plasma levels of lutein and zeaxanthin as well as an increase in macular pigment density when the egg is fed.
Eggs are one of the richest sources of cholesterol in the diet, providing 215 mg per large egg. In the 1960s and 1970s, the simplistic view that dietary cholesterol equaled blood cholesterol led to the belief that eggs were a major contributor to hypercholesterolemia and the associated risk of cardiovascular disease. Although some controversy remains regarding the role of dietary cholesterol in determining blood cholesterol levels, most studies have shown that saturated fat, not dietary cholesterol, is the main dietary determinant of plasma cholesterol (and eggs contain 1.5 g of saturated fat). and that neither dietary cholesterol nor egg consumption is significantly related to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Across cultures, countries with the highest egg consumption actually have the lowest cardiovascular disease mortality rates, and population-based studies have shown no correlation between egg intake and plasma cholesterol or heart disease. A 1999 study of more than 117,000 men and women followed for 8-14 years showed that the risk of coronary heart disease was the same whether the subjects consumed less than one egg per week or more than one egg per day. Clinical studies show that dietary cholesterol has little effect on plasma cholesterol levels. Adding one egg per day to the diet would, on average, increase total plasma cholesterol by approximately 5 mg dl_1 (0.13 mmol/l). However, it is important to note that there is an increase in both the atherogenic fraction of LDL cholesterol (4 mg dl_1 (0.10 mmol/L)) and the antiatherogenic fraction of HDL cholesterol (1 mg dl_1 (0.03 mmol/L)), which results in virtually no change in the LDL:HDL ratio, a major determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. The plasma lipoprotein cholesterol response to egg feeding, particularly any changes in the LDL:HDL ratio, varies by individual and by baseline plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. Adding one egg per day to the diets of three hypothetical patients with different plasma lipid profiles results in very different effects on the LDL:HDL ratio. In low-risk individuals the effect is greater than in high-risk individuals, but in all cases the effect is quantitatively small and would have little impact on their heart disease risk profile.
Overall, the results of clinical trials suggest that egg feeding has little, if any, effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is consistent with the results of a number of epidemiological studies. A common consumer misconception is that eggs from some bird breeds have little or no cholesterol. For example, eggs from Araucana chickens, a South American breed that lays blue-green eggs, have been advertised as low-cholesterol eggs, when in fact the cholesterol content of these eggs is 25% higher than that of commercial eggs. The amount of cholesterol in the egg is determined by the developmental needs of the embryo and has proven to be very difficult to substantially change without the use of hypocholesterolemic drugs. Unnecessary concerns about the cholesterol content of eggs led to a steady decline in egg consumption during the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, and limiting this important and affordable source of high-quality protein and other nutrients could have negative effects on well-being. from many nutritionally “at risk” populations. Per capita egg consumption has been increasing in North America, Central America, and Asia over the past decade, remaining relatively stable in South America and Africa, and declining in Europe and Oceania. Overall, global per capita consumption of eggs has been slowly increasing over the past decade, partly due to changing attitudes toward the health concerns of dietary cholesterol.
Video about How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant
You can see more content about How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant on our youtube channel: Click Here
Question about How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant
If you have any questions about How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant, please let us know, all your questions or suggestions will help us improve in the following articles!
The article How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant was compiled by me and my team from many sources. If you find the article How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant helpful to you, please support the team Like or Share!
Rate Articles How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant
Rate: 4-5 stars
Search keywords How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant
How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant
way How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant
tutorial How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant
How Much Weight Should You Gain By 31 Weeks Pregnant free
#Macro #MicroNutrient #Eggs