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Fast Charging Battery Research: Hot, Super High-Tech & Wowing!
Ever since mobile phones became popular, the importance of rechargeable electric batteries has been steadily increasing worldwide. According to Wikipedia, there were an estimated 6.8 billion mobile phones (including smartphones) in use worldwide in 2013, and 97 out of every 100 people in the world owned at least one mobile phone. These numbers include some of the poorest among us. While a large number of users do not go beyond a simple voice call (and the occasional text message), the availability of free, excellent and easy-to-use “apps” (or apps) grows in variety and number every day. , is gradually attracting many in this category to become “core” mobile phone users. Many people who use PCs as their primary computing devices today are realizing that PCs will soon be moving from their leading position in the computing world, and are also starting to switch to smartphones. These factors are expected to lead to a 35% increase in the number of smartphone users by 2020 (or 9.2 billion users worldwide).
As smartphones become thinner, lighter, smarter, use larger displays, etc., they are also more hungry. Thus, the need for high-capacity, super-fast charging batteries that can be recharged many times before destroying is critical to the success of future smartphones.
There are also other important applications that depend on fast battery charging for their well-being. One of them is the very popular electric vehicle (EV) industry. Users expect the battery charging time to be comparable to the time it would take to refuel at a gas station today, i.e. on the order of 4-5 minutes. Another very important application is in smart grids – those smart power management stations where electricity inputs and outputs to users are controlled. High-capacity, fast charge/discharge batteries are needed to store excess energy (when input exceeds demand) and release it whenever there is a shortage. Somewhat less critical, but still important, are fast-charging batteries used in smart watches, smart homes, and personal health devices (PHDs).
A few years ago, it was unmistakably clear that lithium-ion batteries (the best battery technology currently in use) would be completely inadequate for future demands. There is such a wide gap between Li-ion technology and the envisioned battery of the future that it was quite obvious that nothing short of a “quantum leap” (or revolution) in battery technology would suffice. That is why, although it is not yet in the news, feverish and frantic research has been initiated in many leading university and corporate research and development centers to find out the sublime battery technology of the future with features such as: charging time on the order of several minutes or even seconds (wow!), lower weight (up to half in the case of EV batteries), greater capacity, safety (no electrical fires and explosions reminiscent of the 2013 Boeing 787 accidents to be expected! ), significantly lower cost, ease of handling and cycle time in thousands and tens of thousands!
The thought of achieving a “quantum leap” in technology in 1-2 years would have left the scientific community speechless in the recent past. But now things have changed! A man who has recently pushed the boundaries of scientific knowledge by unprecedented leaps, today’s researchers sitting at the very pinnacle of scientific knowledge seem to be offering very promising solutions at the drop of a hat!
So here is a list of the most promising technologies that are undergoing research at the time of writing. (Note: Research into fast-charging batteries is currently inundated with many alternative technologies competing for the #1 spot. Since there are so many, the author has not attempted to provide an exhaustive list. Instead, the list below represents the best of the bunch, according to his opinion.)
ALUMINUM-GRAPHITE TECHNOLOGY (see references 2 and 4 for further details):
At the top of the list is aluminum-graphite technology, which is being developed at Stanford University in the US. It’s stunning with its 1 minute (yes, 60 seconds!) charge time. Although its capacity is about half that of Li-ion, it more than makes up for this shortcoming with an incredible charging time. Compared to Li-ion’s lifespan of about 1,000 charge cycles, aluminum-graphite lasts at least 7,500 cycles. It’s also much safer than Li-ion – scientists say that even if you drill into it, it won’t catch fire!
ALUMINUM-AIR TECHNOLOGY (FOR EV) (reference no. 1 and 2):
In an Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery, oxygen from the air is used in the cathode and, as a result, a separate oxidizer is not required. This type of battery has an energy density that could give an electric car enough power to match its gasoline-powered counterparts. Range on one full charge is about 1000 miles! A couple of top-ups may be all you need if you drive up to 2000 miles a month!
What’s amazing about this battery is that it’s only half the weight of a current lithium battery. With half the weight of the battery, you get much more payload for transporting passengers and goods (Note: The battery is by far the heaviest part of an electric car. For example, in a Tesla Roadster, the battery is about a third of the total weight, so the weight savings of one sixth of the total weight is significant ).
ALUMINUM-AIR TECHNOLOGY (FOR EV) (Reference #2):
This is a different type than the Al-air technology described above. Wow, because it runs on water (both regular and sea) and has 40 times the capacity of Li-ion!
FAST CHARGING BASED ON NANOTECHNOLOGY (Reference No. 5):
StoreDot Ltd., an Israeli high-tech fast battery charging company, will soon come up with the “FlashBattery for SmartPhones”, a universal smartphone charger. The company uses proprietary organic compounds created/engineered using nanotechnology.
What makes it stunning? It can charge any phone, regardless of brand or model, in one minute (max)!
In addition to phones, the charger can be used to charge wearable devices, PHDs, tablets and the like. However, there is a catch – even though it is proven, it is not yet commercially available! It may take a year to be available in retail stores.
StoreDot will also soon offer “FlashBattery for EV”, a fast charger for electric vehicles. This product is designed to charge a car battery in just five minutes!
FAST CHARGING VIA RADIO WAVES (Reference No. 2):
In this technology, the electrical energy used for charging is transmitted through radio waves.
It’s not too overwhelming, except that it’s wireless and charges from up to 20 feet away. And it also has a catch – it’s not immediately available in the market.
ORGANIC FLOW TECHNOLOGY (Reference #2 and Wikipedia):
Organic flux technology, developed by MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), produces electricity using an organic substance, AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid) as a charge carrier.
It amazes us by reducing the cost of electricity generation (from batteries) by 97% – while metal batteries provide 1 KWh of energy for $700, organic flow batteries give you that much energy for only $27!
NANOBATTERIES (reference #2, 6 and Wikipedia):
Nanobatteries are made from “nano” sized batteries (i.e. sizes ranging from 10 to -9 meters). “Nano” batteries are made by placing two electrodes in a small hole (or “nanopore”) in an electrically insulating membrane or metal compound (such as aluminum oxide) separated by a thin insulating film. A large number of “nanopores” join together to form a full battery.
Is there anything superlative about them? Yes! The nanopores are so small that they are not individually visible. They can hold up to four times the energy of Li-ion and charge to full in 10 minutes. In addition, they have a service life of about 1000 charging cycles.
NTU LITHIUM-TITANIUM DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY (FOR EV) (Reference #7 and Wikipedia):
This is a technological breakthrough from Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University (NTU). By changing the graphite cathode found in Li-ion batteries to a cheap gel made of titanium dioxide, NTU claims to have developed an ultra-fast charging battery that charges to 70% of its capacity in two minutes! In addition to the two-minute charge, it impresses with an extraordinary lifespan of 20 years.
Primarily aimed at electric vehicles, the battery life factor is expected to significantly reduce costs that would otherwise be incurred due to frequent battery replacement.
NOTE: As mentioned earlier, fast-charging battery research is an evolving field that is currently crowded with several alternative technologies that show promise. Technologies based on metal foam substrate, silicon, sodium-ion, urine-powered microbial fuel cells, solar, hydrogen, candle soot, and several others under research and development were, in compiling the above list, believed by the author to be are the best, left out. lots of. One notable omission is Meredith Perry’s “over the air charge” technology, which uses ultrasound-borne electricity to charge. A long-awaited and much-loved technology that, until a while ago, apparently did not pass recent evaluation tests, so it had to be excluded from consideration.
Reference: (You must cut and paste the link into your browser to access reference numbers 3 to 7)
1. Jeffrey Marlow, “10 Hottest Areas of Scientific Research”, 10 Hottest Areas of Scientific Research | Wired, http://www.wired.com/2013/08/the-10-hottest-fields-of-science-research/
2. Pocket-lint, “Future Batteries, Coming Soon: Charge in Seconds, Last Months, and Air Charge,” Future Batteries, Coming Soon: Charge in Seconds, Last Months, and Air Charge – Pocket-lint, http:// www.pocket-lint.com/news/130380-future-batteries-coming-soon-charge-in-seconds-last-months-and-power-over-the-air
3. ScienceDaily,”Batteries Research,” Batteries News — Science Daily, sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/batteries/
4. Stanford University, “Stanford aluminum battery offers safe alternative to conventional batteries,” news.stanford.edu/news/2015/march/aluminium-ion-battery-033115.HTML
5. StoreDot Ltd.,”FlashBattery for Smartphones,” StoreDot What We Do, store-dot.com/#!smartphones/c1u5l
6. Ars Technica,”New battery made up of lots of nanobatteries,” | Ars Technica, arstechnica.com/science/2014/11/new-battery-composed-of-lots-of-nanobatteries/
7. Nanyang Technological University, “NTU develops ultra-fast charging batteries that last 20 years,” News Detail, media.ntu.edu.sg/NewsReleases/Pages/newsdetail.aspx?news=809fbb2f-95f0-4995-b5c0-10ae4c50c934
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