The Weight Of A Size 5 Soccer Ball In Kilograms Program Progressions – Comparing Strength and Hypertrophy Training

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Program Progressions – Comparing Strength and Hypertrophy Training

The old adage in resistance training is you can’t get bigger without getting stronger and you can’t get stronger without getting bigger. In fact it is believed that there is a 50:50 relationship between getting bigger and getting stronger.

Yet the types of training methods used for the two areas of strength and hypertrophy have some fairly basic differences. In resistance training the two most important factors are the tension placed on a muscle and, the duration of the training stimulus. The changes made to a program for achieving either strength or hypertrophy relies on the subtle differences you make to the program around these two areas.

Hypertrophy relies on sheer total loads lifted per workout, per week, per month, month after month after month. Sure there needs to be a progressive change to this load and there needs to be phases of maximal strength assisting the client to achieve the next stage of hypertrophy. Hypertrophy training predominantly stresses the biological muscular system asking it to adapt by growing in size and cope with the sheer volume of work it has been doing. The goal is to lift as much weight over as many reps for an extended duration per rep.

Maximal strength training relies more simply on the biggest weight a client can lift per exercise or muscle group. It does not rely as much on how many sets the client achieves, or the total amount of weight lifted per workout. Max strength training predominantly stresses the neuromuscular system asking the central nervous system to adapt to the increasing weight needed to be moved by that muscle or that movement sequence. Maximal strength training is best done slowly and only increased in speed if you are trying to help develop the clients power.

When programming for hypertrophy, the actual training volume needs to include a high number of reps of at least 250 plus reps/workout, a rep range in the 6 – 15 region and a somewhere between 3 to 6 sets per exercise.

The training intensity needs to be moderate to enable the high volume of reps and sets required and the tempo of each set needs to be controlled to around 3 to 4 sec on the eccentric phase and 2 to 3 sec on the concentric phase. You need to do this in order to achieve a total of at least 60-70 seconds duration per set per exercise.

Another important factor is the variety of exercises used per workout. A novice should complete between 8 to 10 exercises in total, and do fewer sets per exercise of 2 to 3 sets each. An advanced trainer should create greater focus with fewer exercises of between 4 to 5 exercises, but do more sets per exercises of between 3 to 6 sets each. But by far the most significant factor in gaining muscle mass; outside of calorie intake; is how much weight you lift in tonnes per workout. This is calculated by the following formula.

Volume (total of sets x reps) x Intensity of load (kg per exercise) = Tonnes

Using this formula is where you can either make great gains or great mistakes. Look at the following example.

Program 1

· Bench press                         6 x 15 100kg

· Squats                                 6 x 12 120kg

· Chin ups                              6 x 12 90 kg

· Upright row                           6 x 15 60kg

Total reps for the workout = 324 reps

Total weight lifted for the workout = 29520 kg

Program two

· Bench press              6 x 8               125kg

· Squats                      6 x 6               150kg

· Chin ups                  6 x 8               120 kg

· Upright row               6 x 8               90kg

Total reps for the workout = 180 reps

Total weight lifted for the workout = 21480 kg

In comparing the two programs, you’ll see that program two achieves the heaviest weights per exercise, but the total rep range is too low being well under 250 reps in total. There is also a massive 8040 kg difference in total weight lifted between the two workouts. Program 1 has the reps and sets in the correct ranges and is by far the best program to do for weight gain. Program 2 would make the greater gains in maximal strength.

As we need to place the body under stress in order to make it grow, the total weight lifted per workout for program one is producing the greater stress on the muscles biology than program two. Program two is placing greater stress on the body’s neural drive to create greater neural recruitment of motor units, but not to increase muscles mass.

When training a client to get greater muscle mass, calculate the total reps and total weight lifted. Then each time you reprogram the client after the 4-8 week period make sure that firstly you achieve the minimum number of reps on each program and also that you don’t drop the total weight volume lifted per workout just to go heavier with certain exercises.

Let’s look at another example. When training to increase muscle mass we know we have to lift as much weight per workout as possible. Look at the following two programs.

Program 1

· Bench press              6 x 15 100kg

· Squats                      6 x 12 120kg

· Chin ups                   6 x 12 90 kg

· Upright row               6 x 15 60kg

Total reps for the workout = 324 reps

Total weight lifted for the workout = 29520 kg

Program 2

· Bench press            3 x 15 100kg

· DB flyes                  3 x 15 20kg

· Squats                    3 x 15 120kg

· Leg curls                 3 x 15 50kg  

· Chin ups                 3 x 15 90 kg

· Seated row              3 x 15 60kg

· Upright row              3 x 15 60kg

· Lat raises                3 x 15 15kg

Total reps for the workout = 360 reps

Total weight lifted for the workout = 23625 kg

Many people still believe that in order to get big they must program clients to do lots of exercises and do more exercises per muscle group, changing the angles and hitting the muscle in both isolated and compound fashions.

In comparing the two programs, you’ll see that the sets and rep ranges are both correct. In fact program 2 has more reps per workout than program 1. Both programs allow 6 sets per muscle group, yet Program 1 still achieves nearly 6000 kg extra in total weight lifted per workout.

You may think that going to another exercise will give the muscle more specific work, yet when the body is trained less than 6000 kg in stress, it will respond less, grow less and adapt more quickly than if it was to do program 1.

In programming for hypertrophy make sure that if you are going to manipulate the program variables that you take into consideration the principles mentioned above. It is much easier to program strength by consistently increasing weights lifted and decreasing reps performed. When dealing with clients who have less than 5 years experience and are trying to achieve weight gain naturally, train between 1 and 1.5 hrs 3 to 4 times per week. Only when dealing with clients who train for a significant number of additional hours per week by longer sessions and/or more frequent sessions per week will you need to consider changes from the program styles shown.

Ultimately though the load principle remains and you must achieve greater loads to achieve greater muscles mass, except now the load is being spread across multiple workouts and days instead of the standard 2 to 4 sessions per week.

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