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Sex and Scientific Philosophy – Why Women Live Longer Than Men
It is a well-established fact that women live longer than men. There are many reasons. An attempt is made here to briefly describe some of the factors identified in published studies and to suggest new directions for further research.
It is believed that these studies may lead to the discovery of new factors that explain the difference in longevity between men and women. One of these is fetal microchimerism, in which a certain number of fetal cells persist in the mother’s body after pregnancy. Another, which may be discovered in further research, is the system involved in boosting the mother’s immune system during and after pregnancy.
Further research may find that fertile women live longer than sterile women. In addition, those women who live beyond the age of 100 may have specific genes that slow the aging process and reduce their chances of heart disease, stroke, cancer and Alzheimer’s.
The X chromosome may be another factor that affects a woman’s lifespan. Because women have two X chromosomes, if one is abnormal, the normal one can be used instead of the defective one. In such cases, women become carriers rather than victims of the disease.
Serious research points to menopause as a major determinant of longevity. Except for females and certain whales, very few species menstruate.
The evolutionary forces required to pass on genes and the need to stay alive and have the maximum number of children may be some of the natural forces that make women live longer than men.
In the United States and other developed countries, the average life expectancy is about eighty years for women and about seventy years for men. However, in Sweden, in the 18th century, it was about 37 for women and 34 for men.
Women are more than four times more likely to live longer than men during their first twenty-five years, largely because of men’s testosterone. This factor decreases with age, but the gap still favors women. Sex hormones are a definite factor to consider; young males are aggressive, and bad cholesterol levels rise, leading to heart attacks or strokes.
However, the female hormone estrogen lowers bad cholesterol and raises “good” cholesterol. Recent research suggests that taking estrogen therapy after menopause may reduce the risk of death, especially from heart disease or stroke.
Women’s hearts live longer and have better blood vessels, possibly due to estrogen. Even diseases such as heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes ultimately kill more men than women.
However, the advantages women have over men do not apply to women who smoke, drink, are overweight or stressed, which is typical of women working in previously male-dominated fields. In fact, there is no gap at all between male and female smokers.
However, there are countries with little such disparity, such as India and Pakistan, where sexism and practices such as female infanticide and bride-burning are rife.
Mortality may also be influenced by chromosomal differences between males and females. They all carry gene mutations that can lead to certain life-threatening diseases.
Women have two X chromosomes, and if one is abnormal, the normal one can be used, making the woman only a carrier of the disease. Men have one X and one Y chromosome, so if the gene is defective, they cannot use a replacement chromosome. The differences in lifespan described above were observed in most animals.
Another fact is that men are more likely than women to engage in dangerous and violent behaviors, which increases male mortality. More men than women are also killed in car accidents, homicides and even suicides.
Fetal microchimerism refers to the persistence of a certain number of fetal cells in the mother’s body after pregnancy. Some recent research suggests that it may be the cause of some autoimmune diseases. However, long-term presence of fetal cells in healthy women is a contraindication. The long-term presence of fetal cells may also be important for the development of fetal tolerance.
If microchimerism results from the transfer of cells between the mother and fetus, further research may reveal the role of these fetal cells in boosting the mother’s immune system during and after pregnancy. We know that during pregnancy, cells can migrate in both directions between mother and fetus.
As pregnancy progresses, the rate of cell transfer from fetus to mother increases. In most cases, the fetal cells are compatible with the mother’s immune system, so the mother’s body does not reject them.
It is believed that these women, especially those who live to be ninety or one hundred years old, may possess specific genes that slow aging and reduce the likelihood of developing heart disease, stroke, cancer or Alzheimer’s disease.
Further research may show that fertile women live longer than sterile women. It could also be that those who bear at least one male live longer.
The detection of Y chromosome or male DNA in post-pregnancy women, even those who gave birth to their last son many years before the blood draw, may support this theory.
Overall, stem cells are replicable and have long-term self-renewal capabilities. Since they don’t have any specific structure, they can evolve into specialized cells such as heart muscle, nerve or blood cells.
The sources of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are bone marrow, peripheral blood and the umbilical cord of newborn babies. One new technology that has spawned new businesses is the collection of stem cells from babies’ cord blood, which can be stored for future use.
The predominance of umbilical cord stem cells and the fact that there is cell transfer between mother and fetus may be another factor that explains and supports the theory that women who have given birth live longer than women who have not given birth.
Finally, it should be emphasized that there are many reasons for women’s longevity, and only some of them are mentioned above.
The Bible (English version) says (Genesis 16): “He said to the woman: I will greatly increase your sorrow and your pregnancy; in sorrow you will bring children; You will love your husband, he will rule over you… ‘.
The Hebrew version has:’…in sorrow you will bring boys‘.
Although some may claim that “boys” or barnim is a common name for children, one might wonder if the original name was really “boy”…
Longer lifespans for women may be part of some grand Darwinian scheme where Mother Nature rewards motherhood, especially for women who give birth to at least one male; mothers may live five extra years for their efforts… it is they deserve it…
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